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Bintuvannya nig kit trad 纏足 spr 缠足 pinyin chanzu bukvalno zv yazana stupnya zvichaj yakij praktikuvavsya v Kitayi osoblivo sered aristokratiyi z pochatku X do pochatku XX stolittya Divchatkam lamali kistki stupni pislya chogo smuzhkoyu tkanini priv yazuvali do stupni vsi palci nogi krim velikogo ta zmushuvali hoditi u vzutti malenkogo rozmiru vid chogo stopi znachno deformuvalisya inodi pozbavlyayuchi mozhlivosti hoditi v majbutnomu Kitayanka pokazuye svoyi deformovani nogiBintovani nogi Shanhaj 1874 rik Fotografiya A M BoyarskogoDivchina v tradicijnomu kitajskomu vbranni ta vzuttiKitajska pridvorna dama foto z knigi 1911 roku Taki nogi tradicijno nazivalisya zolotimi lotosami Vid rozmiru stupni zalezhav prestizh narechenoyi chim mensha stopa tim vishij prestizh Do togo zh vvazhalosya sho dami yaka nalezhit do visokogo suspilstva ne slid hoditi samostijno Ce bezsillya nezdatnist do peresuvannya bez storonnoyi dopomogi skladali za literaturnimi svidchennyami odnu z privablivih ris zhinki aristokratki zdorovi ta nedeformovani nogi asociyuvalisya iz selyanskoyu praceyu ta pidlim pohodzhennyam Za volodaryuvannya mongolskoyi dinastiyi Yuan ta manchzhurskoyi dinastiyi Cin u Kitayi malenki nogi takozh stavali simvolom nacionalnoyi identichnosti ta civilizovanosti oskilki u mongoliv ta manchzhuriv zhinkam stupni ne bintuvali Na pochatku XX stolittya Kan Yuvej Su Manshu ta inshi gromadski diyachi a takozh hristiyanski misioneri piddavali praktiku bintuvannya nig zhorstkij kritici Pislya Sinhajskoyi revolyuciyi 1911 i stanovlennya respubliki cej specifichnij zvichaj postupovo shodit nanivec Na pochatku XXI stolittya zalishilasya lishe nevelika kilkist duzhe litnih zhinok yaki mayut deformovani nogi Zmist 1 Pohodzhennya ta istoriya praktiki 2 Prichini 3 Poshirenist 4 Proces 5 Naslidki 6 Sprijnyattya cholovikami 7 Sprijnyattya zhinkami 8 Kritika ta zniknennya zvichayu 9 Vzuttya dlya bintovanih nig tufelki lotosi 10 Vpliv na modu 11 U kulturi 12 Div takozh 13 Primitki 14 Literatura 14 1 Dokumentalni filmi 15 PosilannyaPohodzhennya ta istoriya praktiki red nbsp Tuflya v kantonskomu stili z shovku i bavovni Kitaj rubizh XIX XX stolit Muzej Redpat Kanada Ye kilka legend pro pohodzhennya praktiki bintuvannya stop 1 Za odniyeyu z versij nalozhnicya imperatora z dinastiyi Shan strazhdala na klishonogist cherez ce same vona nachebto poprosila imperatora zrobiti zagalnoobov yazkovim bintuvannya nig dlya vsih zhinok takim chinom yiyi vlasni nogi stali vzircem krasoti ta elegantnosti Insha legenda rozpovidaye sho ulyublena nalozhnicya imperatora Syao Baoczyuan Pan Yujnu u yakoyi buli vitoncheni nizhki tancyuvala bosonizh na zolotomu pomosti prikrashenomu perlami ta zobrazhennyami kvitok lotosu Zahoplenij imperator viguknuv Vid kozhnogo dotiku yiyi nizhki rozkvitayut lotosi Mozhlivo same todi vinik viraz noga lotos abo zolotij lotos prote u legendi ne zgaduyetsya pro te sho stopi divchini buli zabintovani 2 3 Odnak u bilshosti vipadkiv viniknennya zvichayu bintuvati nogi pov yazuyetsya z istoriyeyu pro te yak imperator Li Yuj 937 978 poprosiv odnu zi svoyih nalozhnic Yao Nyan zabintuvati stupni smuzhkami bilogo shovku takim chinom shob voni nagaduvali pivmisyac pislya chogo divchina tancyuvala tanec lotosu na kinchikah palciv 4 1 Tanec Yao Nyan buv nastilki vitonchenim sho inshi namagalisya nasliduvati yiyi 5 Zhinkam z vishogo suspilstva pochali bintuvati nogi pislya chogo cya praktika otrimala zagalne poshirennya 6 7 8 nbsp Ilyustraciya XVIII stolittya na yakij Yao Nyan bintuye sobi nogi Deyaki doslidniki mayut sumnivi shodo dostovirnosti ciyeyi legendi Napriklad istorik Lin Vejhun vvazhaye sho zvichaj bintuvannya nig z yavivsya v Kitayi piznishe ne ranishe epohi Sun 960 1279 7 U bud yakomu vipadku vidomo sho zvichaj bintuvati stopi stav populyarnim u period dinastiyi Sun Do kincya ciyeyi epohi z yavilasya cholovicha tradiciya piti z tufelki u pidborah yakoyi buv nevelichkij kelih Z pochatku periodu dinastiyi Yuan deyaki choloviki pili pryamo z tufelki ce malo nazvu osushiti zolotij lotos abo tost za zolotij lotos Tradiciya zbereglasya do chasiv dinastiyi Cin 1 9 Najdavnishi zgadki pro bintuvannya nig datuyutsya priblizno 1100 rokom koli kilka virshiv natyakali na cyu praktiku 10 11 12 13 Nevdovzi pislya 1148 roku u najdavnishomu diskursi pro praktiku bintuvannya nig uchenij Chzhan Bandzhi pisav sho zabintovana noga povinna bula mati formu arki ta buti malenkoyu 13 14 15 Vin zauvazhiv sho zhinoche bintuvannya nig pochalosya neshodavno vono ne zgaduvalosya v zhodnij knizhci poperednih epoh 13 U XIII stolitti vchenij Che Ruoshuj napisav pershij vidomij kritichne oglyad praktiki Malenkih divchatok yakim she ne vipovnilosya 4 5 rokiv yaki ne zrobili nichogo poganogo vse zh zmushuyut terpiti bezmezhnij bil shob zrobiti yihni nogi malenkimi Ya ne znayu yaka vid cogo korist 13 16 17 Najdavnishimi arheologichnimi dokazami zv yazuvannya nig ye grobnici Huan Shen yaka pomerla u 1243 roci u vici 17 rokiv ta madam Chzhou yaka pomerla u 1274 roci Nogi oboh zhinok buli zv yazani marlevimi smuzhkami dovzhinoyu 1 8 m Oglyad skeleta Chzhou yakij dobre zberigsya pokazav sho yiyi nogi pomistilisya u vuzkih gostrih kapcyah pohovanih razom z neyu 13 Viglyad zabintovanih nig chasiv dinastiyi Sun de velikij palec buv zignutij dogori vizualno vidriznyayetsya vid stilyu piznishih epoh a nadmirno malij rozmir stopi ideal vidomij yak tridyujmovij zolotij lotos mig stati populyarnim lishe v XVI stolitti 18 19 V period mongolskogo zavoyuvannya pokalicheni nogi kitayanok dozvolyali legko vidrizniti yih vid mongolok ta inshih varvariv zavdyaki chomu voni stali simvolom nacionalnoyi identichnosti Pershim yevropejcem yakij zgadav bintuvannya nig buv italijskij misioner Odorik Pordenone en v XIV stolitti v epohu dinastiyi Yuan 20 Odnak zhoden inshij inozemnij vidviduvach Kitayu tih chasiv napriklad Ibn Battuta 1304 1377 ta Marko Polo 1254 1324 yaki odnak vidznachili vitonchenu hodu kitayanok yaki jshli duzhe malenkimi krokami ne zgaduvav pro cyu praktiku sho mozhlivo vkazuye na yiyi neveliku poshirenist chi ekstremalnist na toj chas 21 Pislya togo yak manchzhurska dinastiya zahopila Kitaj u 1636 roci imperator Huan Tajczi vidav ukaz pro zaboronu bintuvannya nig 1636 22 V 1664 roci inshij volodar Kansi zalishiv cej ukaz v sili po vidnoshennyu do divchat manchzhurskogo pohodzhennya ale skasovav jogo shodo kitayanok 7 23 U rezultati v Kitayi z yavilosya prisliv ya Moda silnisha za imperatora 24 Forma stopi stala vazhlivoyu oznakoyu sho vidriznyaye manchzhurskih zhinok vid zhinok narodu han Odnak kitajski estetichni uyavlennya silno vplivali na manchzhurok yaki pragnuli nasliduvati osoblivu hodu kitayanok z ciyeyu metoyu voni pridumali svoyu vlasnu formu vzuttya yake dozvolyalo zhinci pogojduvatisya pid chas hodbi Ci tufelki sho mali nazvu chashechka kvitki mali visoku platformu ta robilisya zazvichaj z dereva inodi voni mali nevelike pidnesennya u seredini pidoshvi Platforma tufelki bula klinopodibnoyi formi ta zvuzhuvalisya donizu tomu vistupayucha z pid spidnici stupnya zhinki zdavalasya menshoyu nizh vona bula naspravdi 7 24 V armiyi povstanciv tajpiniv 1850 1864 bilshist lideriv yakogo buli predstavnikami narodu hakka zhinki buli zrivnyani v pravah z cholovikami pri comu tajpini zaboronili na kontrolovanih nimi teritoriyah zvichaj bintuvannya nig u divchatok 25 26 27 Vid pochatku XX stolittya uryad z praktichnih mirkuvan namagavsya zaboroniti bintuvati nogi Imperatricya Cisi vidala podibnij ukaz dlya polipshennya vidnosin z inozemcyami prote nezabarom vin buv skasovanij U 1902 roci bintuvannya nig bulo zaboroneno ukazom imperatora dinastiyi Cin 28 U 1912 roci pislya padinnya dinastiyi Cin novij uryad Kitajskoyi Respubliki zaboroniv bintuvannya nig odnak yak i v poperednih vipadkah ce pochinannya ne uvinchalosya uspihom do togo zh zaborona aktivno ne vprovadzhuvalasya 29 Vodnochas providni intelektuali Ruhu chetvertogo travnya vbachali u perev yazanih nogah golovnij simvol vidstalosti Kitayu 30 Lideri provincij taki yak Yan Sishan u Shansi brali uchast u postijnij kampaniyi proti bintuvannya nig iz inspektorami ta shtrafami tim hto prodovzhuvav praktiku 29 todi yak regionalni uryadi piznishogo Nankinskogo rezhimu prosto dotrimuvalisya zaboroni bez znachnogo regulyuvannya 31 Zagalom kampaniya proti perev yazuvannya nig bula uspishnoyu v zalezhnosti vid regionu Koli v 1949 roci do vladi prijshli komunisti na choli z Mao Czedunom yim vdalosya domogtisya povnoyi zaboroni bintuvannya nig u tomu chisli u viddalenih silskih rajonah meshkanci yakih ne pidkoryalisya vidpovidnomu ukazu poperednogo uryadu Ostannij vipadok perev yazuvannya buv zareyestrovanij u 1957 roci 32 33 Do XXI stolittya lishe kilka kitajskih litnih zhinok mali zabintovani nogi 34 35 Zaborona ciyeyi praktiki isnuye j donini Krim zakonodavchoyi zaboroni zminivsya mentalitet zhiteliv Kitayu Zokrema osoblivu uvagu stalo pridilyatisya rozvitku sportu zokrema zhinochogo Peremogi kitajskih sportsmenok v Olimpijskih igrah ye predmetom gordosti spivvitchiznikiv Z ciyeyi prichini ponyattya pro zhinochnist ta zhinochu privablivist stalo nesumisnim z deformaciyeyu nig 36 Odnak vzuttya dlya deformovanih nig prodovzhuvalo viroblyatisya oskilki vse she buli zhivi zhinki chiyi nogi buli zabintovani v ditinstvi Ostannya para tufelok dlya zolotih lotosiv bula poshita v 1999 roci Pislya cogo vidbulasya urochista ceremoniya zakrittya vzuttyevoyi fabriki a tovar sho zalishivsya na skladi buv darovanij etnografichnomu muzeyu 37 38 U XIX ta na pochatku XX stolittya vistupali tancyuristki z bintovanimi nogami a takozh cirkachi Zhinki z perev yazanimi nogami v odnomu seli provinciyi Yunnan stvorili regionalnu tancyuvalnu trupu vistupayuchi dlya turistiv naprikinci XX stolittya hocha vik zmusiv grupu piti na pensiyu 39 V inshih regionah zhinki u vici 70 80 rokiv dopomagali pracyuvati na risovih polyah navit na pochatku XXI stolittya hocha j mali znachni obmezhennya v ruhlivosti 40 Prichini red Zhinka iz zabintovanimi nogami bula obmezhena v mozhlivosti peresuvatisya samostijno vona bula zmushena siditi vdoma ta ne mogla piti kudi nebud bez suprovodu slug Vvazhalosya sho malenka stopa ne dozvolyaye zhinkam brati uchast u politici ta gromadskomu zhitti Zhinka bula zalezhna vid svoyeyi rodini ta v pershu chergu vid cholovikiv svoyeyi rodini Z ciyeyi prichini zabintovani nogi stali simvolom gendernoyi nerivnosti zhinochogo pidporyadkuvannya i cnotlivosti ta cholovichoyi vladi 41 Krim togo zhinka yaka nezdatna samostijno peresuvatisya bula svidchennyam bagatstva ta privilejovanogo stanovisha yiyi cholovika oskilki vin mig utrimuvati nepracyuyuchu druzhinu 42 Krim cogo poshiryuvalasya dumka sho deformuvannya nig polipshuye reproduktivne zdorov ya zhinki ta robit yiyi bilsha zdatnoyu do ditonarodzhennya 43 Zabintovani stopi stali oznakoyu krasoti ta neobhidnoyu umovoyu dlya poshuku cholovika ta vdalogo odruzhennya u tomu chisli z vishim socialnim statusom ta finansovim stanovishem gipergamiya osoblivo dlya bidnishih zhinok z takih provincij yak Sichuan 44 Naprikinci XIX stolittya v provinciyi Guandun u bidnih sim yah stalo zvichayem bintuvati nogi starshij z donok yaku gotuvali do prestizhnogo zamizhzhya abi pokrashiti materialne stanovishe rodini doleyu molodshih sester bula domashnya pracya ta shlyub iz selyaninom voni takozh mogli stati nalozhnicyami bagatshih cholovikiv Rodini ta choloviki duzhe pishalisya krihitnimi nizhkami svoyih druzhin 43 45 46 Za svidchennyam misionera Dzhastusa Dulitla en bagato bidnih rodin gotovi buli piti na bud yaki pozbavlennya zadlya togo shob yihni donki mali neobhidni dlya vdalogo zamizhzhya krihitni nizhki 43 Vvazhayetsya sho praktika bintuvannya nig u znachnij miri pov yazana z panivnoyu v serednovichnomu Kitayi patriarhalnoyu filosofiyeyu konfucianstva Konfucij dotrimuvavsya davnoyi koncepciyi in i yan zgidno z yakoyu zhinka povinna nesti v sobi pochatok in tobto slabkist ta pasivnist Deformaciya stopi prisheplyuvala ci yakosti zhinci Okrim togo konfucianstvo nasadzhuvalo suvoru socialnu iyerarhiyu v yakij zhinki znahodilisya v pidporyadkovanomu stanovishi vidnosno do cholovikiv Skladnist samostijnogo peresuvannya dlya zhinok obmezhuvala yihni mozhlivosti ta tim samim garantuvala neporushnist ciyeyi iyerarhiyi 36 Odnim iz zahisnikiv tradiciyi bintuvannya nig divchinkam buv konfucianskij filosov Chzhu Si 1130 1200 yakij napolyagav na tomu sho cej zvichaj slid poshiriti za mezhi Kitayu oskilki vin yavlyaye soboyu pravilni vidnoshennya mizh cholovikom ta zhinkoyu 47 Poshirenist red Nezvazhayuchi na silnij vpliv kitajskoyi kulturi na susidni derzhavi Yaponiya V yetnam Koreya praktika bintuvannya nig zhinkam ne prizhilasya u zhodnij z cih krayin 7 Deyaki etnichni grupi yaki ne nalezhali do narodu han osnovna etnichna grupa Kitayu praktikuvali netuge bintuvannya nig za yakogo kistki ne lamalisya a stopa ne zginalasya a lishe zvuzhuvalasya Sered narodu hakka bintuvannya nig vzagali ne praktikuvalosya 48 Vidmicheno sho praktika bintuvannya stop isnuvala do 1948 roku sered dungan yaki ye musulmanami sho pribuli do Kitayu z Centralnoyi Aziyi 49 ta bula duzhe poshirenoyu v etnichnij grupi huej provinciyi Gansu 50 V Pivdennomu Kitayi v misti Guanchzhou vchenij Dzhejms Legg viyaviv mechet u yakij visiv plakat sho zasudzhuye zvichaj bintuvannya nig ta tverdit sho islam ne mozhe dozvoliti robiti te sho rujnuye tvorinnya Boga 51 Bintuvannya nig stavalo vse bilsh poshirenim sered shlyahetskih aristokratichnih simej zgodom poshirivshis na inshe naselennya oskilki prostolyudini ta teatralni aktori perejnyali jogo Do periodu Min cya praktika vzhe ne bula prerogativoyu dvoryanstva a natomist stala vvazhatisya simvolom statusu 23 52 53 Bintuvannya takozh zaohochuvali mongolski praviteli na svoyih kitajskih piddanih 8 Do XIX stolittya bulo pidrahovano sho 40 50 kitajskih zhinok mali perev yazani nogi Sered kitayanok vishogo klasu cya cifra syagala majzhe 100 40 U bidnih sim yah bintuvannya nig ne zavzhdi bulo tugim i pochinalosya vono piznishe V tih rajonah Kitayu de viroshuvavsya ris zhinki brali uchast u roboti na polyah tozh tam cya tradiciya ne mala takogo poshirennya yak v inshih regionah Kitayu 47 Deyaki zhinki z perebintovanimi nogami mogli hoditi hocha dlya nih ce bulo nabagato vazhche nizh dlya tih chiyi nogi ne buli deformovani U XIX stolitti ta na pochatku XX stolittya sered cholovikiv koristuvalisya populyarnistyu vistupi tancivnic iz perebintovanimi nogami a v cirkah aktrisi z ciyeyu osoblivistyu mogli stoyati na spinah konej sho skachut 54 V odnij provinciyi opituvannya 1929 roku pokazalo sho lishe 2 3 divchat narodzhenih do 1910 roku mali zdorovi nezabintovani nogi ti zh hto narodivsya pislya 1910 roku u 95 vipadkah ne bintuvali nogi 55 U regioni na pivden vid Pekina Dingsyan de ponad 99 zhinok kolis mali perev yazani nogi novi vipadki bintuvannya sered tih hto narodivsya pislya 1919 roku ne buli viyavleni 56 57 Na Tajvani cya praktika takozh ne zaohochuvalas yaponskoyu vladoyu z pochatku yaponskogo pravlinnya a z 1911 do 1915 roku yiyi postupovo pririvnyali do nezakonnoyi 58 U 1928 roci perepis naselennya v silskij miscevosti Shansi pokazav sho 18 zhinok mali zv yazani nogi 39 todi yak u deyakih viddalenih silskih rajonah takih yak provinciya Yunnan bintuvannya prodovzhuvali aktivno praktikuvati do 1950 h rokiv 59 60 Proces red nbsp Bintovana stopa nbsp Perev yazana bintovana stopa nbsp Proces bintuvannya nogi Bintuvannya nig pochinalosya v dityachomu vici v malenkih divchatok she do togo yak stopa bula povnistyu sformovana Najchastishe bintuvati nogi batki rozpochinali voseni abo vzimku oskilki holod zmenshuvav chutlivist do bolyu i dopomagav divchatkam terpiti a takozh znizhuvav rizik infikuvannya 61 24 V bagatih rodinah u den pershogo bintuvannya divchinci nadavalasya osobista prisluga zadlya togo shob doglyadati za yiyi stopami ta nositi yiyi na rukah u ti dni koli bil stanovivsya zovsim nesterpnim 47 Dlya formuvannya lotosu potribno bulo priblizno tri roki Proces deformaciyi skladavsya z chotiroh etapiv 24 Pershij etap mav nazvu sproba bintuvannya 24 Nasampered nogi divchinki obmivali teployu sumishshyu z trav yanih vidvariv ta krovi tvarin dlya togo shob stopa stala bilsh gnuchkoyu Bavovnyani binti zavdovzhki 3 metri ta shirinoyu 5 santimetriv takozh vimochuvalisya u trav yanih vidvarah ta krovi tvarin Nigti na nogah pidrizalisya yakomoga korotshe dlya profilaktiki vrostannya nigtya ta yak naslidok infikuvannya Pislya cogo batki chi slugi zginali stopu ditini z takoyu siloyu sho palci vdavlyuvalisya v pidoshvu nogi ta lamalisya Pov yazku nakladali u formi visimki pochinayuchi zi sklepinnya stopi potim navkolo palciv ta nareshti navkolo p yatki Pislya kozhnogo oborotu binta pov yazka tugo zatyaguvalasya 7 Kinci pov yazki zshivali dlya togo shob vona ne oslabla a potim na nogu divchinki odyagali specialni shkarpetki ta tufelki z gostrimi nosami 24 Pislya ciyeyi proceduri divchinci z perelamanimi palcyami ne davali znimati binti ta zmushuvali hoditi na travmovanij stopi zadlya togo shob pid vagoyu tila vona nabula bazhanoyi formi 4 Krim togo hodba bula neobhidna dlya vidnovlennya krovoobigu v tugo zabintovanih nogah Shodnya divchinka mala prohoditi shonajmenshe 5 kilometriv prote divchatkam z osoblivo malenkimi nogami hoditi bulo nemozhlivo i do kincya zhittya yih nosili slugi 24 Drugij etap trivalistyu ponad pivroku mav nazvu sproba zatyaguvannya Na comu etapi binti zatyaguvalisya vse tugishe sho bagatorazovo posilyuvalo bil 24 Zlamani palci ditini vimagali postijnogo doglyadu tomu pov yazki periodichno znimalisya stopi omivalisya dlya togo shob vidaliti tkanini urazheni nekrozom Nigti akuratno pidstrigalisya Divchinci masazhuvali stopi shob voni legshe zginalisya inodi bili yih shob suglobi ta zlamani kistki stali gnuchkishimi 62 Pislya obmivannya nogu obroblyali galunami ta pahoshami z riznimi aromatami 42 Vidrazu pislya ciyeyi proceduri pov yazka nakladalasya znovu prichomu bint zatyaguvavsya she tugishe Cej proces povtoryuvavsya yaknajchastishe u zamozhnih sim yah shonajmenshe shodnya a v bidnih selyanskih rodinah dvichi chi trichi na tizhden Cim zazvichaj zajmalisya dorosli zhinki iz sim yi divchinki chi profesijni bintuvalniki nig Vvazhalosya sho materyam ne slid provoditi cyu proceduru oskilki mati vidchuvatime zhalist do donki 63 Isnuvala kitajska prisliv ya Mati ne mozhe lyubiti odnochasno svoyu dochku ta yiyi nogu 47 Tretij etap mav nazvu period tugogo bintuvannya Na comu etapi nosok nogi postupovo prityaguvavsya do p yatki kistki pri comu zginalisya ta inodi lamalisya znovu 24 Chetvertij etap nazivavsya bintuvannya dugi jogo metoyu bulo sformuvati pidjom stopi nastilki visokim sho pid arkoyu stopi moglo pomistitisya kuryache yajce V rezultati forma stopi pochinala nagaduvati natyagnutij luk ce vvazhalosya duzhe krasivim ta seksualnim 24 Cherez 4 5 rokiv pislya pochatku bintuvannya stopi bil stavav slabshim Odnak strazhdannya yaki zavdavala deformaciya nogi buli takimi silnimi sho v Kitayi z yavilosya prisliv ya Para bintovanih nig koshtuye vannu sliz 7 U doroslishomu vici zhinki mali prodovzhuvati sami bintuvati sobi nogi 4 Ce dovodilosya robiti protyagom vsogo zhittya 24 U Kitayi isnuvali specialni stilci dlya bintuvannya nig Kozhen stilec buv osnashenij visuvnoyu skrinkoyu v yakij zberigalisya binti nozhici dlya pidrizannya nigtiv ta inshe priladdya U spinci stilcya znahodilosya pristosuvannya dlya rozgladzhuvannya zim yatih bintiv 24 Idealna noga povinna bula ne perevishuvati 7 santimetriv zavdovzhki taki stopi nazivalisya zoloti lotosi 64 Stupnya zavdovzhki 10 santimetriv mala nazvu sribnij lotos yaksho zh dovzhina perevishuvala 10 sm zaliznij lotos i ne silno kotiruvalasya Stopa ne povinna bula viglyadati yak opora dlya tila 4 Naslidki red nbsp Rentgenivskij znimok pokalichenoyi nogi nbsp Porivnyannya normalnoyi ta deformovanoyi stop Najposhirenishoyu problemoyu bulo viniknennya infekcij nig Nezvazhayuchi na te sho nigti regulyarno pidstrigali voni chasto vrostali v palec viklikayuchi zapalennya ta poshkodzhuyuchi tkanini palcya Tomu inodi nigti vidalyalisya Takozh kilka shariv shilnoyi tkanini ne propuskali povitrya do stopi 24 krim togo cherez zanadto tugu pov yazku krovoobig u stopi porushuvavsya a v palcyah nig vzagali znikav V rezultati infekcijni procesi u palcyah ne pripinyalisya pochinavsya nekroz tkanin Yaksho infekciya perehodila do kistki to palci mogli vzagali vidpasti ce vvazhalosya spriyatlivim oskilki teper mozhna bulo perebintuvati nogu she tugishe Yaksho u divchinki buli shirshi stopi v nih inodi vstromlyali oskolki skla abo cherepici shob sprovokuvati infekciyu ta yak naslidok nekroz tkanin Infekciya nogi mogla prizvesti do smerti vid zarazhennya krovi yaksho divchinka vizhivala to v doroslomu vici u neyi chastishe vinikali rizni zahvoryuvannya Na pochatku procesu znachna chastina kistok stopi zalishalasya zlamana chasto na dekilka rokiv Koli divchinka stavala starshoyu kistki pochinali zrostatisya Odnak navit pislya togo yak kistki zrostalisya voni zalishalisya tenditnimi i chasto znovu lamalisya osoblivo u pidlitkovomu vici koli buli she nedostatno micnimi Dorosli zhinki chasto strazhdali vid perelomiv nig ta stegnovih kistok oskilki v stanovishi stoyachi yim bulo vazhko zberigati rivnovagu a takozh vazhko vstavati iz sidyachogo stanovisha 65 Vsuperech misionerskim pisannyam bagato zhinok z bintovanimi nogami mogli hoditi j pracyuvati v poli hocha j z bilshimi obmezhennyami nizh zhinki zi zvichajnimi stopami 66 nbsp Viglyad nig pislya bintuvannya U 1997 grupa doslidnikiv provela porivnyannya mizh litnimi zhinkami z deformovanimi ta zdorovimi nogami Bulo z yasovano sho ti zhinki chiyi nogi buli deformovani chastishe strazhdayut vid osteoporozu masa kistkovoyi tkanini v stegnovih kistkah u nih bula nizhchoyu na 5 1 a v hrebti na 4 7 sho oznachaye pidvishenij rizik perelomu kistok Pri comu rizik padinnya u nih vdvichi vishij 38 proti 19 4 Oskilki pov yazka na nogah obmezhuvala ruhi zhinki odnim iz pobichnih efektiv zrostannya populyarnosti bintuvannya stav vidpovidnij zanepad mistectva zhinochogo tancyu v Kitayi 67 68 Sprijnyattya cholovikami red nbsp Bintovani nogi vvazhalisya krasivimi ta duzhe erotichnimi U kitajskij kulturi deformovani stopi vvazhalisya duzhe erotichnimi U toj zhe chas viglyad zhinochoyi nogi bez vzuttya ta bintiv vvazhavsya nepristojnim 24 Deyaki choloviki volili nikoli ne bachiti zhinochu nogu bez pov yazki z ciyeyi prichini zhinki postijno nosili binti ta vzuttya Odin iz kitajskih avtoriv pisav Yaksho vi znimete vzuttya ta pov yazku to estetichna nasoloda bude naviki zrujnovana 62 Zhinkam dozvolyalosya lishe pered snom zlegka poslabiti pov yazku ta vzuti tufli na m yakij pidoshvi 69 U Kitayi buli poshireni erotichni zhinochi zobrazhennya blagopristojno zvani vesnyani kartinki sami zhinki na nih buli ogoleni ale na nogah bulo vzuttya 24 U kitajskomu klasichnomu romani Kviti slivi v zolotij vazi neodnorazovo zgaduyetsya pro krihitni nizhki golovnoyi geroyini 70 Pan Czinlyan shosta dochka kravcya Panya yakij zhiv za Pivdennoyu bramoyu mista she buduchi divchinkoyu vidriznyalasya krasoyu Za charivni malenki nizhki yiyi nazvali Czinlyan Zolotij lotos yiyi malenki yakraz u pivshpilki v tri vershka zoloti lotosi nizhki gostronosi yak shilo abo nizhni parostki lotosa sho stupayut po aromatnomu pilku i tancyuyut na rozsipanij biryuzi Vzuta vona v tufelki z hmarami rozshitogo bilogo shovku na tovstij pidoshvi Vitoncheno pidneseni dogori yak kigot orlinij gostri yihni noski Yiyi zoloti lotosi nizhki stupayut nemov po pilku aromatnomu i nizhnomu U knizi chasiv imperiyi Cin opisuyetsya 48 riznomanitnih erotichnih igor iz zhinochoyu nogoyu 42 V tomu chisli bulo vidomo 11 riznih sposobiv torkatisya zhinochoyi nogi 71 Isnuvala klasifikaciya sho opisuye 58 riznovidiv zhinochih nig napriklad bozhestvenna duzhe puhka m yaka ta vitonchena chudova slabka ta vitonchena bezsmertna pryama samostijna dorogocinna nadto shiroka neproporcijna chista zanadto dovga ta tonka spokusliva ploska korotka shiroka krugla nedolikom ciyeyi nogi bulo te sho yiyi volodarka mogla protistoyati vitru nadmirna vuzka ale nedostatno gostra zvichajna puhka poshirenogo tipu nepravilna mavpopodibna velika p yatka sho daye mozhlivist dertisya 42 Malenku stupnyu idealnoyi formi z gostrim noskom porivnyuvali z molodim misyacem abo z vesnyanimi pagonami bambuku Bulo vislovleno dumku sho odniyeyu z najsilnishih erotichnih nasolod ye spoglyadannya krihitnih slidiv vid zhinochih nig na snigu 24 nbsp Erotichne zobrazhennya zhinki z deformovanimi stopami Zhinki z deformovanimi nogami unikali perenosennya tyazhkosti tila na nosok i vvazhali za krashe nastupati na p yatku tomu yihnya hoda stavala oberezhnoyu ta nestijkoyu Marko Polo 1254 1324 pisav sho dovzhina kroku kitayanki ne perevishuye pivpalcya 1 Choloviki vvazhali duzhe erotichnoyu zhinochu hodu lotos sho semenit i pogojduyetsya 61 U Kitayi kazali sho pid chas hodbi zhinka z deformovanimi stopami nagaduye nizhnij verbovij pagon sho ovivayetsya vesnyanim vitercem 69 Storonni choloviki ne povinni buli bachiti stupni nig zamizhnoyi zhinki tomu spidnici shilisya duzhe dovgimi 71 Deformaciya nig vvazhalasya zaporukoyu zhinochoyi cnotlivosti chomu v serednovichnomu Kitayi nadavalosya velichezne znachennya ale vodnochas vvazhalosya sho vona spriyaye rozvitku seksualnosti zhinki 47 Napriklad atrofiya stop prizvodila do nadmirnogo navantazhennya na stegna voni nabryakali tozh choloviki sprijmali yih yak puhki ta htivi 42 Do togo zh sered cholovikiv isnuvala erotichna fantaziya pro te sho podibna nezvichajna hoda zmicnyuye m yazi pihvi 47 ta sho postijni m yazovi spazmi sprichineni bolem roblyat pihvu vuzhchoyu Vvazhalosya sho dotik do stupni seksualno zbudzhuye zhinku 24 Sprijnyattya zhinkami red nbsp Porivnyannya normalnoyi zhinochoyi nogi zliva ta perev yazanoyi nogi foto 1902 roku Zvichaj bintuvannya nig sprijmavsya zhinkami yak neobhidnist oskilki do zhinok z normalnimi nedeformovanimi nogami stavilisya z prezirstvom nazivayuchi yih bosonogimi 1 Pid chas svatannya sim ya narechenogo spochatku cikavilasya rozmirom stopi narechenoyi Yaksho yiyi dovzhina perevishuvala chotiri cunya priblizno 13 sm 69 trohi dovshe serednogo palcya ruki 24 to svekruha znevazhlivim zhestom zrivala spidnicyu z divchini a gosti vislovlyuvali obrazlivi zauvazhennya na yiyi adresu 69 Cholovik mav pravo rozirvati zaruchini yaksho viyavlyalosya sho stupni narechenoyi nedostatno malenki 24 Zhinki z nedeformovanimi nogami ne tilki ne mogli rozrahovuvati na vdale zamizhzhya u bagatih budinkah prislugovuvati gospodini mogli lishe divchata iz zabintovanimi nogami a ti u kogo stopa bula nadto velikoyu zmusheni buli zajmatisya vazhchoyu ta brudnishoyu robotoyu napriklad na kuhni 1 Do togo zh za kitajskim povir yam yaksho zhinka ne mala cholovika vmirala bezditnoyu ta ne bulo komu doglyadati yiyi mogilu to u svoyemu posmertnomu isnuvanni vona peretvoryuvalasya na golodnij privid i prirechena bula vichno blukati bez pritulku Z ciyeyi prichini zaradi mozhlivosti vijti zamizh zhinki zgodni buli terpiti bil ta inshi naslidki bintuvannya nig 4 Yaksho mati iz zhalyu nedostatno tugo bintuvala nogi donki to u doroslomu vici divchina zasudzhuvala matir za slabkist 69 Kritika ta zniknennya zvichayu red nbsp Grupa zhinok z deformovanimi stopami Nezvazhayuchi na populyarnist tradiciyi bintuvannya nig v deyakih vipadkah vona kritikuvalasya Napriklad u fantastichnomu romani Kviti v dzerkali kitajskogo pismennika Li Zhuchzhenya bl 1763 bl 1830 geroj odin z ministriv Carstva Blagorodnih priyihavshi do Kitayu divuyetsya Ya chuv sho u vashij krayini zdavna isnuye zvichaj bintuvati zhinochi nogi V samomu pochatku divchatka muchatsya zhahlivo hapayutsya za nogi krichat plachut nogi pochinayut gniti krov teche Cherez ce divchinki ne splyat nochami i ne mozhut yisti cherez ce pochinayutsya vsilyaki serjozni hvorobi Ya dumav sho ci divchatka nesluhnyani ta yihni materi vse taki ne nastilki zhorstoki shob ubiti yih tomu obirayut cej sposib pokarannya shob vipraviti yih A viyavlyayetsya sho ce robitsya zaradi krasi Bez cogo bachite negarno U comu romani ye glava Krayina zhinok v yakij choloviki narodzhuyut ditej ta piddayutsya bintuvannyu nig 72 Poet Yuan Mej napisav tvir U chomu krasa malenkih nizhok Adzhe ves svit bozhevoliye za nimi Jogo poslidovnik Yuj Chzhense vistupav proti zvichayu bintuvannya nig oskilki ce nanosit shkodu zdorov yu zhinok 7 Pislya porazki povstannya tajpiniv hristiyanski misioneri yaki zabezpechuvali navchannya divchat spochatku aktivno pereshkodzhali bintuvannyu nig yake vvazhali varvarskoyu praktikoyu sho mala shkidlivij socialnij vpliv na zhinok 73 potim vidigravali rol u zmini dumki kitajskih elit shodo perev yazuvannya nig cherez osvitu pamfletizm ta lobiyuvannya dvoru Cin 31 74 nagoloshuyuchi na tomu fakti sho zhodna insha kultura u sviti ne praktikuvala zvichaj bintuvannya nig 43 U 1874 roci anglijskij misioner Dzhon Makgoven en zaklikav do znishennya zvichayu bintuvannya nig ce stalosya v misti Syamen Na zaklik vidguknulisya 60 kitajskih hristiyanok Odna z zhinok mati simoh dochok vistupila pershoyu vona dala klyatvu sho yiyi donki nikoli ne piddavatimutsya bintuvannyu nig navit yaksho v rezultati voni ne zmozhut vijti zamizh Na cih zborah virishili stvoriti Tovaristvo nebesnoyi nogi Nebesnoyu nogoyu kit 天足 pinyin tianzu akad tyanczu nazivalasya noga prirodnoyi formi stvorena Nebom tobto Bogom na protivagu deformovanij nozi kit trad 纏足 spr 缠足 pinyin chanzu akad chanczu 75 76 77 Makgoven dotrimuvavsya dumki sho bintuvannya nig bulo serjoznoyu problemoyu yaka stavit pid sumniv vsyu kitajsku civilizaciyu vin vidchuvav sho pidla civilizaciya zavazhaye bozhestvennij prirodi 78 Chleni Tovaristva poobicyali ne perev yazuvati nogi svoyim dochkam 43 79 Nadali slovo tyanczu stalo zagalnokitajskim simvolom ruhu za zaboronu bintuvannya nig 80 Iniciativu Makgovena pidtrimali inshi hristiyanski misioneri U 1895 roci hristiyanski zhinki v Shanhayi na choli z Alisiyeyu Littl en takozh zasnuvali Tovaristvo prirodnih nig en 77 81 Timoti Richard en zasnuvav ruh Zhinocha hristiyanska strimanist ta vvazhav sho hristiyanstvo mozhe spriyati rivnosti mizh cholovikami ta zhinkami 82 Cya opoziciya pid kerivnictvom misioneriv mala silnishij vpliv nizh rannya opoziciya hanciv chi manchzhuriv 83 Zahidni misioneri zasnuvali pershi shkoli dlya divchat i zaohochuvali zhinok pripiniti cyu praktiku 84 Voni takozh ne prihovuvali svogo shoku ta vidrazi koli poyasnyuvali proces bintuvannya nig zahidnim odnolitkam kitajskih divchat 83 U cej chas osvicheni kitajci stali usvidomlyuvati sho cej aspekt yihnoyi kulturi ne vidpovidaye progresu suchasnogo suspilstva 85 Napriklad reformator Kan Yuvej predstaviv zakonoproekt pro zaboronu bintuvannya nig 86 prokomentuvavshi toj fakt sho Kitaj stav zhartom dlya inozemciv i sho bintuvannya nig bulo golovnim ob yektom takih nasmishok a v 1883 roci vin zhe stvoriv Suspilstvo zvilnennya nig en pershu podibnu organizaciyu 87 88 89 Ruh proti bintuvannya nig nagoloshuvav na pragmatichnih i patriotichnih mirkuvannyah a ne na feministichnih stverdzhuyuchi sho skasuvannya perev yazuvannya nig prizvede do pokrashennya zdorov ya ta efektivnishoyi praci 90 Filosof Yan Fu zaklikav do reform yaki b spriyali ozdorovlennyu naciyi v tomu chisli vin vvazhav sho slid zaboroniti kurinnya opiumu ta bintuvannya nig Yan Fu takozh vvazhav sho kitayankam slid zajmatisya sportom sho dopomoglo b yim narodzhuvati silnih ta zdorovih ditej 91 Pismennik ta gromadskij diyach Su Manshu 1884 1918 pereklav roman Znedoleni Viktora Gyugo vin uviv u rozpovid pridumanogo nim samim personazha yakij kritikuye kitajski tradiciyi zokrema bintuvannya nig Za slovami Su Manshu cej zvichaj ye varvarskim cherez deformaciyu stop zhinki ne mozhut hoditi a yihni nogi nagaduyut kopita svini 92 nbsp Kitajska vistavka prisvyachena istoriyi bintuvannya nig Prihilniki teoriyi socialnogo darvinizmu Lyan Cichao stverdzhuvali sho cya tradiciya poslablyuye naciyu oskilki slabki zhinki ne mozhut naroditi silnih siniv 93 U svoyij praci Pro zhinochu osvitu Lyan stverdzhuvav sho osnovna prichina nacionalnoyi slabkosti neminuche polyagaye u vidsutnosti osviti dlya zhinok Vin ubachav zv yazok mizh osvitoyu dlya zhinok i bintuvannyam nig Poki perev yazuvannya nig zalishayetsya na praktici zhinocha osvita ne mozhe procvitati 94 Cichao takozh buv rozcharovanij tim sho pershimi hto vidkriv shkoli dlya kitayanok buli inozemci oskilki vvazhav sho same kitajci povinni navchati kitajskih zhinok 90 Feministki kritikuvali cej zvichaj cherez te sho vin zavdaye strazhdan zhinkam 47 62 Feministka Cyu Czin zaklikala pripiniti pov yazuvannya nig 95 96 Tim chasom Chzhao Chzhicyan u 1906 roci napisav u Pekinskih zhinochih novinah zvinuvachennya zhinok iz zabintovanimi nogami v tomu sho voni ye nacionalnoyu slabkistyu v ochah inshih nacij 97 Vodnochas deyaki sim yi yaki ne shvalyuvali tradiciyu bintuvannya nig domovlyalisya mizh soboyu pro te sho sin z odniyeyi rodini odruzhitsya z donkoyu z inshoyi navit yaksho yiyi nogi ne budut deformovani zgidno zi zvichayem 43 Vinikli suspilstva proti bintuvannya nig chleni yakih davali obicyanku ne tilki ne bintuvati nogi svoyih dochok a she j ne dozvolyati svoyim sinam odruzhuvatisya z divchinami z deformovanimi stopami 47 77 98 Ocinka bintuvannya nig u suchasnomu suspilstvi vidriznyayetsya v deyakih vipadkah yak napriklad u romani Dobra Zemlya en amerikanskoyi pismennici Perl Bak cej zvichaj opisanij nejtralno avtor vihodit iz povagi do kitajskoyi kulturi ta vvazhaye sho inozemcyam ne slid yiyi kritikuvati V inshih vipadkah inozemni avtori vislovlyuyut prezirstvo abo oburennya z privodu ciyeyi tradiciyi ta zaklikayut kitajciv znishiti yiyi 99 Vzuttya dlya bintovanih nig tufelki lotosi red Kitajski zhinki z deformovanoyu stopoyu zmusheni buli nositi osoblive vzuttya yake nazivalosya tufelki lotosi Yihni noski mali konichnu formu i nagaduvali buton lotosa pri comu tufli buli duzhe mali ta vmishalisya na doloni ruki Inodi tufli mali pidbori abo klinopodibni pidoshvi zavdyaki chomu noga zdavalasya she menshoyu i hoditi stavalo she vazhche Vzuttya zazvichaj shili z bavovni abo shovku inodi voni buli prostimi ale najchastishe voni buli prikrasheni vishitimi zobrazhennyami kvitiv ptahiv ta tvarin Inodi vishivka bula navit na pidoshvah oskilki peredbachalosya sho zhinki zi skalichenimi nogami ne hoditimut 100 Oskilki inodi vzhe sam vid zhinochogo vzuttya viklikav u cholovikiv erotichne zbudzhennya jogo vigotovlennyu v patriarhalnij kitajskomu suspilstvi nadavali velichezne znachennya Vzuttya ruchnoyi roboti sluzhilo takozh demonstraciyeyu majsternosti vishivannya vlasnika 101 Vono takozh sluguvalo oporoyu oskilki deyaki zhinki zi zv yazanimi nogami ne mogli b hoditi bez pidtrimki stopi ta buli b silno obmezheni u svoyij ruhlivosti 102 Chasto zhinkam dovodilosya samim sobi shiti tufli dlya cogo voni mali specialni derev yani kolodki vigotovleni za formoyu yihnoyi nogi Shittyu ta vishivannyu tufel dlya deformovanih nig divchatok navchali z ditinstva Isnuvali specialni skrinki dlya zberigannya zhinochogo vzuttya Vnochi zhinki tezh mali nositi vzuttya nichni tufli mali m yaku pidoshvu ale buli bilsh korotkimi ta vuzkimi chasto prikrashalisya vishitimi zobrazhennyami erotichnogo zmistu yaki v Kitayi nazivalisya kartinkami vesnyanogo palacu 71 nbsp nbsp nbsp nbsp nbsp nbsp nbsp nbsp nbsp nbsp nbsp Vpliv na modu red U XVII XVIII stolitti u Franciyi vinikla moda na kitajskij stil shinuazri u tomu chisli z yavilisya tak zvani myuli malenki tufelki zazvichaj bez zadnika sho imituyut vzuttya kitayanok 103 i chasto duzhe nezruchni 104 U XVII stolitti myuli vikoristovuvalisya yak domashnye vzuttya piznishe u XVIII stolitti voni stali vvazhatisya oshatnim vzuttyam 105 Myuli v kitajskomu stili napriklad z kolorovogo sap yanu nosili takozh i choloviki ale tilki vdoma 106 nbsp Tufelki myuli Franciya XVIII stolittya nbsp Dama v tufelkah myuli Franciya XVIII stolittya nbsp Dama v tufelkah myuli Franciya XVIII stolittya nbsp Portret markizi de Pompadur u tufelkah myuli nbsp Tufelki myuli imperatrici Katerini II Piznishe myuli vijshli z modi svoyim vidrodzhennyam voni zobov yazani francuzkomu modelyeru Rozhe Viv ye en 1913 1998 105 prozvanomu vzuttyevim Faberzhe 107 Viv ye znovu zrobiv populyarnimi tufelki myuli bez zadnika sho zorovo zmenshuyut rozmir stopi 105 nbsp Suchasni tufelki myuli nbsp nbsp nbsp U kulturi red Bintuvannya nig dobre visvitleno u bagatoh muzichnih i literaturnih tvorah ta na telebachenni yak kitajskih tak i nekitajskih yak suchasnih tak i tradicijnih 108 Zgaduyetsya v romani Kviti slivi v zolotij vazi bl 1610 div vishe 109 Rosijska poetesa Anna Bunina ru zgaduye pro cej zvichaj u svoyij bajci 1810 roku Pekinske ristalishe v yakij rozpovidayetsya pro kitayanku yaka namagayetsya probigti distanciyu dlya hlopciv ta ledve zakinchuye yiyi ale vse odno otrimuye aplodismenti za zusillya Bunina vikoristala cej zvichaj yak alegoriyu vlasnih trudnoshiv u dosyagnenni viznannya yak poeta 110 Zgaduyetsya u knizi Kviti v dzerkali 1827 lingvista Li Zhu chzhenya div vishe 111 Trohdyujmovij zolotij lotos 1994 Fen Czicaya zobrazhuye satirichnu kartinu ruhu za skasuvannya praktiki yaka rozglyadayetsya yak chastina kitajskoyi kulturi 112 U filmi Korchma shostogo shastya en 1958 Ingrid Bergman graye britansku misionerku v Kitayi Gledis Ejlvord kotrij yak inozemci miscevij mandarin doruchaye rozbintovuvati nogi divchatam sho ye nepopulyarnim nakazom yakij civilni uryad ne zmig vikonati Piznishe zavdyaki comu diti zmogli vtekti vid yaponskih vijsk projshovshi kilka kilometriv v bezpechne misce Rutanne Lam MakKann napisala biografichnij roman Tisyacha shmatkiv zolota en 1981 ekranizovanij u 1991 roci en pro Polli Bemis en amerikansku pionerku kitajskogo pohodzhennya Tam opisano yak yiyi nogi spochatku buli zabintovani a potim rozbintovani koli yij potribno bulo dopomogti sim yi z praceyu na fermi Opovidannya Emili Prager en Vizit perev yazuvacha z odnojmennoyi zbirki opovidan 1982 opisuye ostanni kilka godin ditinstva malenkoyi kitajskoyi divchinki pered prihodom profesijnogo bintuvacha yakij zbirayetsya posvyatiti yiyi u dorosle zhinoche zhittya krasi ta bolyu 113 U simejnij avtobiografiyi Yun Chzhan Diki lebedi en odniyeyu z golovnih geroyin ye babusya Yuj fan u yakij z dvorichnogo viku zabintovani nogi P yesa Lizi Lumer Kimnata ochikuvannya 1994 prisvyachena temi modifikacij tila Odna z troh golovnih geroyin kitayanka z XVIII stolittya prihodit do suchasnoyi prijmalni likarni v poshukah medichnoyi dopomogi vid uskladnen sprichinenih yiyi bintovanimi nogami Divchina opisuye proces bintuvannya nig a takozh fizichnu ta psihologichnu travmi otrimani vid cogo procesu 114 U romani Lensi Namioki Uzi yaki zv yazuyut uzi sho rozrivayutsya 1999 rozpovidayetsya pro kitajsku divchinu na im ya Ajlin chiya vidmova bintuvati nogi vpline na yiyi majbutnye 115 Novela Lizi Si en Snigova kvitka i tayemne viyalo en 2005 rozpovidaye pro dvoh kitajskih divchat yakim sudilosya buti druzyami Novela rozkazuye pro zhertvi na yaki zhinki jdut shob vijti zamizh ta rozpovidaye pro dvoh divchat yaki zmusheni bintuvati nogi U 2011 roci vijshla odnojmenna ekranizaciya en noveli vid rezhisera Vejna Vana en U filippinskomu filmi zhahiv Fen shuj en ta jogo prodovzhenni Fen shuj 2 en zobrazhenij privid zhinki iz zabintovanimi nogami yaka meshkaye u dzerkali iz vosma znakami ta proklinaye tih hto trimaye cej predmet U noveli Lizi Si Kitajski lyalki en 2014 opisuyutsya kitajski simejni tradiciyi zokrema j bintuvannya nig Diya romanu Sizhanya Dzheya Chzhao Zalizna vdova 2021 rozgortayetsya u futuristichnomu serednovichnomu Kitayi de vse she praktikuyetsya bintuvannya nig Golovna geroyinya U Czetyan u ditinstvi projshla cherez cyu praktiku i tomu strazhdaye vid hronichnogo bolyu Roman Edvarda Rezerforda Kitaj epichnij roman rozgortayetsya v Kitayi naprikinci isnuvannya imperiyi Cin koli bintuvannya nig she bulo poshirenoyu praktikoyu sered hanciv na pivnochi Donci golovnoyi geroyini Mej Lin na im ya Yaskravij Misyac zabintuvati nogi abi zbilshiti yiyi shansi na vdale zamizhzhya cej proces opisanij u podrobicyah Divchinka nezabarom oburyuyetsya cim oskilki vidchuvaye silnij bil ta ne mozhe brati uchast u bagatoh zahodah U 9 seriyi anime serialu Monolog travnici sluzhnicyu znajshli mertvoyu u rovu Pislya roztinu z yasuvalosya sho v neyi buli zabintovani nogi Div takozh red Modifikaciyi tila Fut fetish Korset Padaung Shtuchna deformaciya cherepa AbasiofiliyaPrimitki red Vikoristana literatura ta dzherela a b v g d e Bossan M J 2004 Ko D 2002 Dorothy Ko 2002 Every Step a Lotus Shoes for Bound Feet angl University of California Press s 32 34 ISBN 978 0 520 23284 6 a b v g d e Chinese Foot Binding Dorothy Ko 2002 Every Step a Lotus Shoes for Bound Feet angl University of California Press s 42 ISBN 978 0 520 23284 6 Cultural Encyclopedia of the Body 2008 a b v g d e zh i Usov 2003 a b Victoria Pitts Taylor red 2008 Cultural Encyclopedia of the Body angl Greenwood s 203 ISBN 978 0 313 34145 8 Marie Josephe Bossan 2004 The Art of the Shoe angl Parkstone Press Ltd s 164 ISBN 978 1 85995 803 2 Han Chinese Footbinding Textile Research Centre Xu Ji 徐積 詠蔡家婦 但知勒四支 不知裹两足 pereklad znayuchi pro te yak roztashuvati chotiri kincivki ale ne pro te yak zabintuvati yij dvi nogi Su Shi 蘇軾 菩薩蠻 塗香莫惜蓮承步 長愁羅襪凌波去 只見舞回風 都無行處踪 偷穿宮樣穩 並立雙趺困 纖妙說應難 須從掌上看 Patricia Buckley Ebrey 1 grudnya 1993 The Inner Quarters Marriage and the Lives of Chinese Women in the Sung Period angl University of California Press s 37 39 ISBN 9780520913486 a b v g d Morris Ian 2011 Why the West Rules For Now The Patterns of History and What They Reveal About the Future angl McClelland amp Stewart s 424 ISBN 978 1 55199 581 6 Dorothy Ko 2008 Cinderella s Sisters A Revisionist History of Footbinding angl University of California Press s 111 115 ISBN 978 0 520 25390 2 墨庄漫录 宋 张邦基 8 卷八 Arhiv originalu za 21 lyutogo 2015 Procitovano 21 lyutogo 2015 Valerie Steele John S Major 2000 China Chic East Meets West angl Yale University Press s 38 40 ISBN 978 0 300 07931 9 车若水 脚气集 Original text 妇人纒脚不知起于何时 小儿未四五岁 无罪无辜而使之受无限之苦 纒得小来不知何用 Dorothy Ko 2008 Cinderella s Sisters A Revisionist History of Footbinding angl University of California Press s 187 191 ISBN 978 0 520 25390 2 Dorothy Ko 2002 Every Step a Lotus Shoes for Bound Feet angl University of California Press s 21 24 ISBN 978 0 520 25390 2 Ebrey Patricia 2 veresnya 2003 Women and the Family in Chinese History angl Routledge s 196 ISBN 9781134442935 Haw Stephen G 22 listopada 2006 Marco Polo s China A Venetian in the Realm of Khubilai Khan angl Routledge s 55 56 ISBN 9781134275427 Elliott M C 2001 a b Li Hsiang Lisa Rosenlee 1 lyutogo 2012 Confucianism and Women A Philosophical Interpretation angl SUNY Press s 141 ISBN 978 0 7914 8179 0 a b v g d e zh i k l m n p r s t u f h Stilec dlya bintuvannya nig Povstannya tajpiniv Vincent Yu Chung Shih Yu chung Shi 1968 The Taiping Ideology Its Sources Interpretations and Influences angl University of Washington Press s 27 29 ISBN 978 0 295 73957 1 Olivia Cox Fill 1996 For Our Daughters How Outstanding Women Worldwide Have Balanced Home and Career angl Praeger Publishers s 57 ISBN 978 0 275 95199 3 Journal of International Women s Studies Arhivovano lyutij 3 2004 na sajti Wayback Machine bridgew edu a b Ko Dorothy 2008 Cinderella s Sisters A Revisionist History of Footbinding angl University of California Press s 50 63 ISBN 978 0 520 25390 2 Wang Ke wen 1996 Reilly Thomas Bangsbo Jens Williams A Mark red Science and Football III angl Taylor amp Francis s 8 ISBN 978 0 419 22160 9 a b Blake C Fred 2008 Bonnie G Smith red The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History angl Oxford University Press USA s 327 329 ISBN 978 0 19 514890 9 Li Xiu ying Women with Bound Feet in China Cessation of Bound Feet during the Communist Era University of Virginia Arhivovano 2020 07 31 u Wayback Machine Excerpts from When I was a girl in China stories collected by Joseph Rupp Ko Alice 2007 Cinderella s Sisters A Revisionist History of Footbinding University of California Press ISBN 978 0520253902 The last case of girls binding ever occurred in 1957 Unbound China s last lotus feet in pictures The Guardian 15 chervnya 2015 Rosenberg David 21 travnya 2015 Traveling Across China to Tell the Story of a Generation of Women With Bound Feet Slate a b Fan Hong 1997 Ko D 2002 s 9 Ko Dorothy 2008 Cinderella s Sisters A Revisionist History of Footbinding angl University of California Press s 9 ISBN 978 0 520 25390 2 a b Simon Montlake 13 listopada 2009 Bound by History The Last of China s Lotus Feet Ladies Wall Street Journal a b Lim Louisa 19 bereznya 2007 Painful Memories for China s Footbinding Survivors Morning Edition National Public Radio Fairbank J K 1986 s 70 a b v g d Dvorkin A a b v g d e Mackie Gerry 1996 Ending Footbinding and Infibulation A Convention Account American Sociological Review 61 6 999 1017 doi 10 2307 2096305 ISSN 0003 1224 JSTOR 2096305 BROWN MELISSA J BOSSEN LAUREL GATES HILL SATTERTHWAITE PHILLIPS DAMIAN 2012 Marriage Mobility and Footbinding in Pre 1949 Rural China A Reconsideration of Gender Economics and Meaning in Social Causation The Journal of Asian Studies 71 4 1035 1067 doi 10 1017 S0021911812001271 ISSN 0021 9118 JSTOR 23357433 Hill Gates 2014 Footbinding and Women s Labor in Sichuan angl Routledge s 8 ISBN 978 0 415 52592 3 Manning Mary Ellen 10 travnya 2007 China s Golden Lotus Feet Foot binding Practice Arhiv originalu za 28 veresnya 2013 Procitovano 29 sichnya 2012 a b v g d e zh i Vento M 1998 Davis 1991 s 333 Atabaki M 2005 s 31 Hastings J Selbie J A Gray L H 1916 s 893 Legge J 1880 s 111 Valerie Steele John S Major 2000 China Chic East Meets West angl Yale University Press s 37 ISBN 978 0 300 07931 9 Ping Wang 2000 Aching for Beauty Footbinding in China angl University of Minnesota Press s 32 ISBN 978 0 8166 3605 1 Lim 2007 Mary White Stewart 27 sichnya 2014 Ordinary Violence Everyday Assaults against Women Worldwide angl Praeger s 4237 428 ISBN 978 1 4408 2937 6 Keck Margaret E Sikkink Kathryn 1998 Activists beyond Borders Advocacy Networks in International Politics angl Cornell University Press s 64 65 ISBN 978 0 8014 8456 8 Gamble Sidney D September 1943 The Disappearance of Foot Binding in Tinghsien American Journal of Sociology 49 2 181 183 doi 10 1086 219351 JSTOR 2770363 S2CID 72732576 Hu Alex The Influence of Western Women on the Anti Footbinding Movement Historical Reflections Vol 8 No 3 Women in China Current Directions in Historical Scholarship Fall 1981 pp 179 199 Krim pokrashen u civilnomu budivnictvi progresu bulo dosyagnuto j u socialnij sferi Tradicijna kitajska praktika bintuvannya nig bula poshirena v pershi roki isnuvannya Tajvanyu Tradicijne kitajske suspilstvo vvazhalo zhinok iz menshimi nogami krasivishimi Zhinki bintuvali nogi dovgimi pov yazkami shob upovilniti rist pokoyivki dililisya na tih hto zi zv yazanimi nogami ta tih hto bez Pershi obslugovuvali dochok udoma a drugim doruchali vazhchu robotu Piznishe cyu praktiku bulo rozcineno yak varvarstvo U pershi roki yaponskogo kolonialnogo periodu bulo stvoreno Tovaristvo zvilnennya nig shob prosuvati ideyu prirodnih nig ale jogo vpliv buv obmezhenim Toj fakt sho v rezultati zemletrusu v Mejshani v 1906 roci zhinki zaznali bilshih vtrat 551 cholovik i 700 zhinok zaginuli a 1099 cholovikiv i 1334 zhinki otrimali poranennya sho silno vidriznyayetsya vid situaciyi z yaponcyami viklikav zanepokoyennya gromadskosti Problema bula znajdena u bintuvannya nig i ce dalo poshtovh do vikorinennya ciyeyi praktiki Favazza Armando R 2011 Bodies under Siege Self mutilation Nonsuicidal Self injury and Body Modification in Culture and Psychiatry p 118 Gillet Kit 16 April 2012 In China foot binding slowly slips into history The Los Angeles Times a b Jackson B 1998 s 192 a b v Levy H S 1991 s 322 Jackson B 1998 s 322 Manning M E Cummings S Stone K 1997 Hershatter Gail 2018 Women and China s Revolutions angl Ebookcentral Rowman amp Littlefield Publishers s 66 ISBN 9781442215702 Anders Hansson 1996 Chinese Outcasts Discrimination and Emancipation in Late Imperial China angl Brill s 46 ISBN 978 9004105966 Robert Hans van Gulik 1961 Sexual life in ancient China A Preliminary Survey of Chinese Sex and Society from ca 1500 B C Till 1644 A D angl Brill s 222 ISBN 9004039171 a b v g d Chzhan Yun 2008 金瓶梅 维基文库 自由的图书馆 zh wikisource org kit Procitovano 21 kvitnya 2024 a b v Skrinya dlya tufel Flowers in the Mirror 1965 Hershatter Gail 2018 Women and China s Revolution 4501 Forbes Boulevard Suite 200 Lanham Maryland 20706 Rowman amp Littlefield s 46 ISBN 9781442215689 Mary I Edwards 1986 The Cross cultural Study of Women A Comprehensive Guide angl Feminist Press at The City University of New York s 255 256 ISBN 978 0 935312 02 7 Ko D 2005 s 14 15 Ko Dorothy 2007 Cinderella s Sisters A Revisionist History of Footbinding angl University of California Press s 14 17 ISBN 9780520253902 a b v Whitefield Brent 2008 The Tian Zu Hui Natural Foot Society Christian Women in China and the Fight against Footbinding PDF Southeast Review of Asian Studies 30 203 12 Arhiv originalu PDF za 18 kvitnya 2016 Zito Angela March 2007 Secularizing the Pain of Footbinding in China Missionary and Medical Stagings of the Universal Body Journal of the American Academy of Religion 75 1 1 24 doi 10 1093 jaarel lfl062 JSTOR 4139836 PMID 20681094 Hershatter Gail 2019 Women and China s Revolutions angl Maryland Rowman amp Littlefield s 46 ISBN 978 1 4422 1569 6 Ko D 2005 s 18 Dorothy Ko 2008 Cinderella s Sisters A Revisionist History of Footbinding angl University of California Press s 14 16 ISBN 978 0 520 25390 2 Goossaert Palmer 2012 a b Drucker The Influence of Western Women on the Anti Footbinding Movement 1840 1911 in Historical Reflections 1981 182 Rachel Keeling The Anti Footbinding Movement 1872 1922 A Cause for China Rather Than Chinese Women in Social and Political Movements 1 2008 12 Levy Howard S 1991 The Lotus Lovers The Complete History of the Curious Erotic Tradition of Foot Binding in China angl New York Prometheus Books s 322 Tihvinskij 2006 Pleshakov Guangqiu Xu 2011 American Doctors in Canton Modernization in China 1835 1935 angl Transaction Publishers s 257 ISBN 978 1 4128 1829 2 Hershatter Gail 2019 Women and China s Revolutions angl Lanham Rowman amp Littlefield s 67 a b Keeling The Anti Footbinding Movement 1872 1922 A Cause for China Rather Than Chinese Women in Social and Political Movements 1 2008 14 Schwartz 1964 s 86 88 Vittinghoff 2004 s 245 Connie A Shemo 2011 The Chinese Medical Ministries of Kang Cheng and Shi Meiyu 1872 1937 angl Lehigh University Press s 51 ISBN 978 1 61146 086 5 Liang Qichao On Women s Education in The Birth of Chinese Feminism Essential Texts in Transnational Theory by Lydia He Liu Rebecca E Karl and Dorothy Ko Columbia University Press 2013 202 Mary Keng Mun Chung 1 travnya 2005 Chinese Women in Christian Ministry angl Peter Lang ISBN 978 0 8204 5198 5 1907 Qiu Jin Chinese feminist and revolutionary ExecutedToday com 15 lipnya 2011 Hershatter Gail 2019 Women and China s Revolution angl Lanham MD Rowman amp Littlefield s 67 68 ISBN 978 1 4422 1570 2 Appiah Kwame Anthony 22 zhovtnya 2010 The Art of Social Change Campaigns against foot binding and genital mutilation The New York Times angl ISSN 0362 4331 Procitovano 3 veresnya 2017 Patricia Ebrey Gender and Sinology Shifting Western Interpretations of Footbinding 1300 1890 Late Imperial China 20 2 1999 1 34 Nicholson G 2006 s 87 Bossen Laurel Xurui Wang Brown Melissa J Gates Hill 2011 Feet and Fabrication Footbinding and Early Twentieth Century Rural Women s Labor in Shaanxi Modern China 37 4 347 383 doi 10 1177 0097700411403265 ISSN 0097 7004 JSTOR 23053328 PMID 21966702 S2CID 44529240 Bossen Laurel 2004 Film Review Footbinding Search for the Three Inch Golden Lotus Anthropologica 48 2 301 303 doi 10 2307 25606208 JSTOR 25606208 Pahomova A V Geleranskaya A a b v Skuratovskaya M V 2013 Rossijskij virtualnyj muzej obuvi Istoriya obuvi period 1800 1840 godov Arhiv originalu za 1 lyutogo 2014 Procitovano 19 sichnya 2014 Hilary Rose 27 September 2007 Ahead of the curve The Times UK Arhiv originalu za 11 travnya 2008 Procitovano 23 October 2009 Mei Ching Liu Women and the Media in China An Historical Perspective Journalism Quarterly 62 1985 45 52 The Golden Lotus Volume 1 angl Singapore Graham Brash PTE Ltd 1979 s 101 https books openbookpublishers com 10 11647 obp 0018 chap08 html Ruzhen Li 1965 Flowers in the Mirror angl translation by Lin Tai yi University of California Press ISBN 978 0 520 00747 5 Jicai Feng 1994 The Three Inch Lotus angl Pereklad Wakefield David Honolulu University of Hawaii Press ISBN 9780585250052 Newman Judie 1 chervnya 2007 The Readerly Politics of Western Domination Emily Prager s A Visit from the Footbinder Journal of the Short Story in English Les Cahiers de la nouvelle angl 48 eISSN 1969 6108 Gecgil Emine 2018 Bhattacharjee Subashish Narayan Ray Girindra red New Women s Writing Contextualising Fiction Poetry and Philosophy angl Cambridge Scholars Publishing s 191 205 ISBN 978 1 5275 0814 9 Children s Book Review Ties That Bind Ties That Break by Lensey Namioka Publishers Weekly May 1999 Procitovano 23 kvitnya 2018 Literatura red Bossan M J The Art of the Shoe 2004 164 s ISBN 978 1859958032 Levy H S The Lotus Lovers The Complete History of the Curious Erotic Tradition of Foot Binding in China New York Prometheus Books 1991 322 s ISBN 978 0879756871 Touraj Atabaki Sanjyot Mehendale Central Asia and the Caucasus transnationalism and diaspora Psychology Press 2005 31 s ISBN 978 0 415 33260 6 Cultural Encyclopedia of the Body Greenwood Victoria Pitts Taylor 2008 203 s ISBN 978 0313341458 Jackson B Splendid Slippers A Thousand Years of an Erotic Tradition Ten Speed Press 1998 192 s ISBN 978 0898159578 Nicholson G Sex Collectors New York Simon amp Schuster 2006 S 87 ISBN 9780743265874 Davis E L Encyclopedia of Contemporary Chinese Culture New York Routledge 1991 S 333 ISBN 9780415777162 Usov V Poslednij imperator Kitaya Pu I Olma Press 2003 391 392 s ISBN 5 224 04249 6 Ko D Every Step a Lotus Shoes for Bound Feet University of California Press 2002 32 34 s ISBN 978 0520232846 Fairbank J K The Great Chinese Revolution 1800 1985 New York Harper amp Row 1986 S 70 ISBN 978 0060390761 nedostupne posilannya z Veresen 2018 Skuratovskaya M V 100 velikih tvorcov mody Veche 2013 ISBN 978 5 9533 6423 2 Fan Hong Footbinding Feminism and Freedom The Liberation of Women s Bodies in Modern China Psychology Press 1997 S 352 ISBN 978 0714643342 Ruzhen Li Flowers in the Mirror University of California Press 1965 ISBN 978 0 520 00747 5 Legge J The religions of China Confucianism and Taoism described and compared with Christianity Hodder and Stoughton 1880 S 111 Hastings J Selbie J A Gray L H Encyclopaedia of religion and ethics Volume 8 T amp T Clark 1916 893 s Elliott M C The Manchu Way the Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China Stanford CA Stanford University Press 2001 247 s ISBN 978 0 8047 3606 0 Goossaert V Palmer D A The Religious Question in Modern China University of Chicago Press 2012 70 s ISBN 978 0 226 30416 8 Vittinghoff N Mapping Meanings The Field of New Learning in Late Qing China Brill Academics 2004 S 245 ISBN 9004139192 Tihvinskij S L Dvizhenie za reformy v Kitae v konce XIX veka i Kan Yuvej Izbrannye proizvedeniya T 1 2006 S 255 ISBN 9004139192 Ko D Cinderella s Sisters A Revisionist History of Footbinding Los Angeles University of California Press 2005 Ko D Perspectives on Foot binding Los Angeles University of California Press 2008 Chzhan Yun Dikie lebedi glava 1 Zolotye lotosy dlinoj v tri cunya Izd vo Ivana Limbaha 2008 142 s ISBN 978 5 89059 106 7 Lensey Namioka Ties That Bind Ties That Break Laurel Leaf 2000 160 s ISBN 978 0440415992 Schwartz Benjamin I In search of wealth and power Yen Fu and the West Belknap Press of Harvard University Press 1964 P 398 Dvorkin A Ginocid abo Kitajske bintuvannya nig Procitovano 2014 01 26 Chinese Foot Binding BBC Manning M E China s Golden Lotus Feet Foot binding Practice 2007 10 travnya Arhivovano z dzherela 28 veresnya 2013 Procitovano 29 January 2012 Cummings S amp Stone K Consequences of Foot Binding Among Older Women in Beijing China 1997 Vento M One Thousand Years of Chinese Footbinding Its Origins Popularity and Demise Chinese Culture March 7 1998 Procitovano 2014 02 01 Stilec dlya bintuvannya nig Procitovano 2014 05 27 Skrinya dlya tufel Procitovano 2014 05 28 Consequences of Foot Binding Among Older Women in Beijing China 1997 Procitovano 2014 02 01 Lim L Painful Memories for China s Footbinding Survivors National Public Radio 2007 19 bereznya Pleshakov K V Universalistskij pacifizm Kan Yuveya Geleranskaya A Galantnyj Kitaj Procitovano 2014 02 01 Pahomova A V Stil shinuazri teatralnyj kostyum tekstil aksessuary dramaturgiya i drugie sfery iskusstva Procitovano 2014 02 01 Snow Flower and the Secret Fan film Procitovano 2014 02 01 Povstannya tajpiniv Procitovano 2014 02 23 Wild Swans Three Daughters of China Procitovano 2014 02 23 Dokumentalni filmi red Footbinding In Search of the Three Inch Golden Lotus 2004 dokumentalnij telefilm rezhisera Yue Cin yan Golden Lotus The Legacy of Bound Feet 2006 dokumentalnij videofilm rezhisera Dzhoan Chen Posilannya red San Chhun Kin Lian bintuvannya nig abo zoloti lotosi Work not sex The real reason Chinese women bound their feet Cya stattya nalezhit do dobrih statej ukrayinskoyi Vikipediyi Otrimano z https uk wikipedia org w index php title Bintuvannya nig amp oldid 42507622